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The algorithm considers many factors to qualify a transaction as fraudulent: trustworthiness of the vendor, a cardholder’s purchasing behavior including time and location, IP addresses, etcetera. The more data points there are, the more accurate the decis

Machine Learning and Big Data Know It Wasn’t You Who Just Swiped Your Credit Card

November 30, 2015 | by Jungwoo Ryoo, Pennsylvania State University | Articles | Comments

You’re sitting at home minding your own business when you get a call from your credit card’s fraud detection unit asking if you’ve just made a purchase at a department store in your city. It wasn’t you who bought expensive electronics using your credit card — in fact, it’s been in your pocket all afternoon. So, how did the bank know to flag this single purchase as most likely fraudulent?

Dr. Seuss — who makes funny non-words — made non-words that were predictably lower in entropy. He was intuitively making lower-entropy words when he was making his non-words.

Researchers Establish World’s First Mathematical Theory of Humor

December 1, 2015 4:07 pm | by Kristy Condon, University of Alberta | News | Comments

How do you quantify something as complex and personal as humor? Researchers have developed a mathematical method of doing just that. The idea for the study was born from earlier research in which test subjects with aphasia were asked to review letter strings and determine whether they were real words or not. They noticed a trend: participants would laugh when they heard made-up non-words like snunkoople.

LHC Collides Ions at New Record Energy

LHC Collides Ions at New Record Energy

November 30, 2015 4:15 pm | by CERN | News | Comments

After the successful restart of the Large Hadron Collider and its first months of data taking with proton collisions at a new energy frontier, the LHC is moving to a new phase, with the first lead-ion collisions of season 2 at an energy about twice as high as that of any previous collider experiment. Following a period of intense activity to re-configure for heavy ion beams, the beams were put into collision for the first time.

German team TUMuch Phun from Technical University of Munich (TUM) won the Highest Linpack Award in the Student Cluster Competition held during SC15. TUM was the only team that used the energy-efficient solution with Intel Xeon Phi, while all other student

TUM Team wins Highest Linpack Award in SC15 Student Cluster Competition

November 30, 2015 4:15 pm | by RSC | News | Comments

German team TUMuch Phun from Technical University of Munich (TUM) won the Highest Linpack Award in the Student Cluster Competition (SCC) held November 16-18, 2015, during the worldwide supercomputing conference and exhibition SC15 in Austin, TX. Performance of 7.1 Tflops has been achieved on RSC PetaStream cluster with computing nodes based on Intel Xeon Phi.

This nonlinear optical wave guide converts the wavelength of a single-photon signal to a common telecom wavelength. Courtesy of L.A. Cicero

Quantum Record set using Photons to Carry Messages from Electrons over Distance of 1.2 Miles

November 30, 2015 3:26 pm | by Bethany Augliere, Stanford University | News | Comments

Researchers have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics — how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. Scientists and engineers are interested in the practical application of this technology to make quantum networks that can send highly secure information over long distances — a capability that also makes the technology appealing to governments, banks and militaries.

The models indicate that, in the case of tumors that are either very large or very small, tumor size does not significantly impact on survival and, therefore, loses its predictive value. This, in turn, could impact how treatment decisions, such as the opt

Mathematical Models Help Predict Surgery’s Impact on Cancer Metastasis, Disease Spread

November 30, 2015 3:12 pm | by Roswell Park Cancer Institute | News | Comments

The size of a surgically removed tumor is generally thought to relate to the risk of the cancer spreading to other regions of the body. But because tumor cells may metastasize at different times and the rate of spread is difficult to assess, the relationship between size and relative risk of recurrence after surgery is challenging to calculate. Mathematical models can provide useful clues and may help to predict the risk of cancer spread.

Left: Allowed states for the standard type-I Weyl fermion. When energy is tuned from below, at zero energy, a pinch in the number of allowed states guarantees the absence of many-body phenomena such as superconductivity or ordering. Right: The newly disco

‘Material Universe’ Yields Surprising New Particle

November 30, 2015 2:47 pm | by Princeton University | News | Comments

Researchers have predicted existence of a new type of particle called type-II Weyl fermion in metallic materials. When subjected to a magnetic field, materials containing the particle act as insulators for current applied in some directions and as conductors for current applied in other directions. The researchers theorize that the particle exists in a material known as tungsten ditelluride.

Still from the Baltoro animation Courtesy of F. Paul, The Cryosphere, 2015 & USGS/NASA

Time-lapse from Space Reveals Glacier in Motion

November 30, 2015 2:34 pm | by ESA | News | Comments

Animations that compress 25 years of satellite images into just one second reveal the complex behavior and flow of glaciers in the Karakoram mountain range in Asia. A glaciologist used images captured by three different Landsat satellites to create time-lapse sequences of four regions: Baltoro, Panmah, Skamri-Sarpo Laggo and Shaksgam. This mountain range is home to some of the highest peaks in the world, including the famous K2.

This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs." A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particl

Earth Might Have Hairy Dark Matter

November 30, 2015 2:23 pm | by NASA | News | Comments

The solar system might be a lot hairier than we thought. A new study proposes the existence of long filaments of dark matter, or "hairs." Dark matter is an invisible, mysterious substance that makes up about 27 percent of all matter and energy in the universe. The regular matter, which makes up everything we can see around us, is only five percent of the universe. The rest is dark energy, a strange phenomenon...

This illustration shows a star behind a shattered comet. Observations of the star KIC 8462852 by NASA's Kepler and Spitzer space telescopes suggest that its unusual light signals are likely from dusty comet fragments, which blocked the light of the star a

Strange Star Likely Swarmed by Comets

November 30, 2015 12:43 pm | by NASA | News | Comments

A star called KIC 8462852 has been in the news recently for unexplained and bizarre behavior. NASA's Kepler mission had monitored the star for four years, observing two unusual incidents, in 2011 and 2013, when the star's light dimmed in dramatic, never-before-seen ways. Something had passed in front of the star and blocked its light, but what?

The Italian Island of Sardinia -- Copernicus data (2015)/ESA – Click to enlarge

The Italian Island of Sardinia

November 30, 2015 12:29 pm | by ESA | News | Comments

This image over part of the Italian island of Sardinia comes from the very first acquisition by the Sentinel-2A satellite. The area pictured covers a section of the island’s northwestern Sassari province, with parts of the coast visible along the left side and bottom. Agricultural fields dominate the inland, with a large area of vineyards at the center of the image.

Striking Black Hole Action -- Courtesy of NASA, ESA, S. Baum & C. O’Dea (RIT), R. Perley & W. Cotton (NRAO/AUI/NSF), and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) – Click to enlarge

Multiple Telescopes Reveal Striking Black Hole Action

November 25, 2015 11:33 am | by ESA | News | Comments

Scientists often use the combined power of multiple telescopes to reveal the secrets of the Universe — and this image is a prime example of when this technique is strikingly effective. The yellow-hued object at the center of the frame is an elliptical galaxy known as Hercules A, seen by the Earth-orbiting NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. In normal light, an observer would only see this object floating in the inky blackness of space...

John Samborsk is CEO at Ace Computers.

Forensic Workstations: Making the World Less Safe for Criminals

November 25, 2015 10:10 am | by John Samborski, CEO Ace Computers | Blogs | Comments

Nearly all forensic investigations involve digital evidence. With current forensic workstations, what used to take days to download can now be accomplished in a matter of hours. This is extremely important when the suspect remains on the street until the contents are downloaded and reviewed. Forensic workstation builders, working with the legal community, learned how to configure hardware and software to preserve the chain of evidence...

An advantage of Li-Fi is that it can use existing power lines as LED lighting, so no new infrastructure is needed. Courtesy of mightyohm, CC BY-SA

In Future, the Internet could come through Your Light Bulb

November 25, 2015 9:42 am | by Pavlos Manousiadis, Graham Turnbull and Ifor Samuel, University of St Andrews | Articles | Comments

The tungsten lightbulb has served well over the century or so since it was introduced, but its days are numbered now with the arrival of LED lighting, which consume 1/10 the power of incandescent bulbs and have a lifespan 30x longer. Potential uses of LEDs are not limited to illumination: smart lighting products offer various additional features, including linking your laptop or smartphone to the Internet. Move over Wi-Fi, Li-Fi is here.

Former NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson is seen after President Barack Obama presented her with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Tuesday, November 24, 2015, during a ceremony in the East Room of the White House in Washington. Courtesy of NASA/Bill I

Katherine Johnson: The Girl Who Loved to Count

November 25, 2015 8:51 am | by NASA | News | Comments

“I counted everything. I counted the steps to the road, the steps up to church, the number of dishes and silverware I washed … anything that could be counted, I did.” So said Katherine Johnson, recipient of the 2015 National Medal of Freedom. Born in 1918 in the little town of White Sulfur Springs, WV, Johnson was a research mathematician, who by her own admission, was simply fascinated by numbers.

Mouse Colon Colonized with Human Microbiota -- Courtesy of Nikon Small World -- 2014 Nikon Small World Image of Distinction -- Click to enlarge

Mouse Colon Colonized with Human Microbiota

November 24, 2015 11:36 am | News | Comments

This 63X photograph shows a mouse colon colonized with human microbiota. It won second place in the 2015 Nikon Small World Photomicrophotography Competition, which recognizes excellence in photography with the optical microscope and was taken using confocal microscopy.



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