For the first time, researchers have measured large distances in the Universe using data, rather than calculations related to general relativity. The team used data from astronomical surveys to measure a standard distance that is central to our understanding of the expansion of the universe. Previously the size of this standard ruler has only been predicted from theoretical models that rely on general relativity to explain gravity.
In the same way as we now connect computers in networks through optical signals, it could also be possible to connect future quantum computers in a quantum internet. The optical signals would then consist of individual light particles or photons. One prerequisite for a working quantum internet is control of the shape of these photons. Researchers have succeeded for the first time in getting this control within the required short time.
Using a computer algorithm that can sift through mounds of genetic data, researchers from Brown University have identified several networks of genes that, when hit by a mutation, could play a role in the development of multiple types of cancer. The algorithm, called Hotnet2, was used to analyze genetic data from 12 different types of cancer assembled as part of the pan-cancer project of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).
About 95 percent of the more than 10,000 bird species known only evolved upon the extinction of dinosaurs about 66 million years ago. According to computer analyses of the genetic data, today's diversity developed from a few species at a virtually explosive rate after 15 million years. Scientists designed the algorithms for the comprehensive analysis of the evolution of birds; a computing capacity of 300 processor-years was required.
This photo of a stink bug received an Image of Distinction designation in the 2013 Nikon Small World Photomicrophotography Competition, which recognizes excellence in photography with the optical microscope. It was taken by Kurt Wirz of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland, using image stacking.
Although there are a diverse range of applications for predictive analytics in R&D, two common basic requirements are data and insight. Data may be generated by running experiments/analyses, or re-applied from previous work when available. Insights come from application of knowledge — both explicitand tacit. There are a variety of roles for informatics in predictive analytics...
The genomes of modern birds tell a story of how they emerged and evolved after the mass extinction that wiped out dinosaurs and almost everything else 66 million years ago. That story is now coming to light, thanks to an ambitious international collaboration that has been underway for four years. The first findings of the Avian Phylogenomics Consortium are being reported nearly simultaneously in 28 papers.
Where did the songbird get its song? What branch of the bird family tree is closer to the flamingo — the heron or the sparrow? These questions seem simple, but are actually difficult for geneticists to answer. A new, sophisticated statistical technique can help researchers construct more accurate species trees detailing the lineage of genes and the relationships between species.
Could there finally be tangible evidence for the existence of dark matter in the Universe? After sifting through reams of X-ray data, scientists at EPFL and Leiden University believe they could have identified the signal of a particle of dark matter. This substance, which up to now has been purely hypothetical, is run by none of the standard models of physics other than through the gravitational force.
Communication protocols for digital devices are very efficient but also very brittle: They require information to be specified in a precise order with a precise number of bits. If sender and receiver — say, a computer and a printer — are off by even a single bit relative to each other, communication between them breaks down entirely.
Celebrating its 30th conference anniversary, ISC High Performance has announced that the 2015 program’s technical content “will be strikingly broad in subject matter, differentiated and timely.” Over 2,600 attendees will gather in Frankfurt, from July 12 to 16, to discuss their organizational needs and the industry’s challenges, as well as learn about the latest research, products and solutions.
This 25X photo received an Image of Distinction designation in the 2013 Nikon Small World Photomicrophotography Competition, which recognizes excellence in photography with the optical microscope, and was taken using Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast.
The mystery of where Earth's water came from got murkier on December 10, 2014, when some astronomers essentially eliminated one of the chief suspects: comets. Over the past few months, the European Space Agency's Rosetta space probe closely examined the type of comet that some scientists theorized could have brought water to our planet 4 billion years ago. It found water, but the wrong kind.
The US Department of Energy is mining for solutions to the rare earth problem — but with high-performance computing instead of bulldozers. Researchers are using the hybrid CPU-GPU, 27-petaflop Titan supercomputer managed by the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to discover alternative materials that can substitute for rare earths.
Springer and Simula have launched a new book series, which aims to provide introductions to select research in computing. The series presents both a state-of-the-art disciplinary overview and raises essential critical questions in the field. All Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing are open access, allowing for faster sharing and wider dissemination of knowledge.